Prevention of pneumonia:
Pneumonia is diagnosed based on a thorough history, physical examination and chest X-ray. Other tests such as blood tests, sputum tests and swabs of the nose and throat may also be done to determine the cause of pneumonia and its severity.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause. In bacterial pneumonia, antibtiotics are the mainstay of treatment. In some viral pneumonias, anti-viral drugs may be administered. Patients should get adequate rest and plenty of fluids to aid in recovery. Medications for accompanying symptoms such as cough or fever will also help ease the recovery process. In more severe cases, oxygen supplementation and mechanical support of breathing may be necessary.
- Good hand and overall hygiene
- Maintenance of good general health with a balanced diet and regular exercise
- Influenza and Pneumococcal vaccinations as per vaccination guidelines
- Smoking cessation
Active TB is similarly diagnosed from history, physical examination and chest imaging. A definite diagnosis is made when sputum samples show the presence of TB bacteria.
Active TB is treated with a combination of multiple anti-TB drugs. The treatment course is prolonged and requires a minimum of 6 months.