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Facial Trauma

​Facial Trauma can occur as an isolated injury or as part of polytrauma, when a patient sustained multiple injuries.

Signs and Symptoms

Facial trauma must be suspected if the mechanism of injury involves direct impact on the face, there is swelling on any part of the face, deformity of the face, obvious laceration of the face. Complex facial fractures may cause severe bleeding from the nose and oral cavity, which can pose a threat to the airway. 

Causes and Risk Factors

Motorcyclists (including pillion riders) account for the majority of road traffic accidents in Singapore. Open face helmets worn by motorcyclists exposes the lower part of the face to direct injury, while full-face helmets lowered the risk of facial injury by two thirds. Other protective gears like mouth guards, sports goggles and fielder's masks can be worn to prevent injuries in sports activities.

​Treatments and Programmes

The initial management focuses on life-threatening injuries including airway management and bleeding. Subsequent treatment on facial function and cosmesis are vital to prevent disfiguring facial injuries because they can have severe psychological and social consequences.​

​​​Early assessment of facial trauma at the Emergency Department is important to prevent excessive bleeding and infection from setting in. The Woodlands Health Facial Trauma programme provides a holistic approach to facial trauma, to ensure optimal management of the facial wounds, as well as reconstruction of the facial fractures if needed. A multidisciplinary team comprising the psychologist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and plastic surgeon will treat the potential facial scarring that may occur. This will ensure physical and psychological recovery from the wounds.

​​   Contributed by Department of Surgery